List of Bohemian monarchs

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Monarchy of Bohemia
Details
StyleHis Majesty
First monarchBořivoj I (as duke)
Last monarchCharles III (as king)
Formationc. 870
Abolition28 October 1918
ResidencePrague Castle, Prague
AppointerHereditary 870-1212
Electoral college 1212–1620
Hereditary 1637–1918


The Duchy of Bohemia was established in 870 and raised to the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198. Several Bohemian monarchs ruled as non-hereditary kings beforehand, first gaining the title in 1085. From 1004 to 1806, Bohemia was part of the Holy Roman Empire, and its ruler was an elector. During 1526–1804 the Kingdom of Bohemia, together with the other lands of the Bohemian Crown, was ruled under a personal union as part of the Habsburg monarchy. From 1804 to 1918, Bohemia was part of the Austrian Empire, which itself was part of the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary from 1867 to 1918. Following the dissolution of the monarchy, the Bohemian lands, now also referred to as Czech lands, became part of Czechoslovakia, and they have formed today's Czech Republic since 1993.

Legendary rulers of Bohemia[edit]

Dukes and Kings of Bohemia from and after Přemyslid dynasty (c. 870–1306)[edit]

Přemyslid dynasty[edit]

Feuds of Bohemia and Moravia under Premyslid rule[edit]

       Part of Great Moravia
(until 907)
      
Duchy of
Bohemia

(870–1198)
Raised to:
Kingdom of
Bohemia

(1198–1306)
Part of Poland
(999–1019)
       Duchy of Moravia
(1019–1055)
Duchy of
Brno

(1st creation)
(1055–1056)
Duchy of
Znojmo

(1st creation)
(1055–1056)
Duchy of
Olomouc

(1st creation)
(1055–1056)
      
              Duchy of
Olomouc

(1061–1178)
Duchy of
Brno

(2nd creation)
(1061–1182)
Duchy of
Znojmo

(2nd creation)
(1092–1182)[1]
      
Duchy of Moravia
(Znojmo line)
(1182–1191)
      
       Duchy of Moravia
(1197–1222)
      

Table of rulers[edit]

Ruler Born Reign Ruling part Consort Death Notes
Bořivoj I 852
Son of Hostivít (?)[2]
870–883

885–889
Duchy of Bohemia Ludmila of Bohemia
873[3]
six children
889
aged 35/6
First documented ruler of the dynasty.
Strojmír ? c. 883–885 Duchy of Bohemia ? ? Apparently a usurper.
Bohemia annexed to Great Moravia (889–894)
Spytihněv I 882
First son of Bořivoj I and Ludmila of Bohemia
894–915 Duchy of Bohemia
(with Moravia since 907)
Unmarried 915
aged 32/3
His reign restored Bohemian sovereignty.
Vratislaus I
(Vratislav)
888
Second son of Bořivoj I and Ludmila of Bohemia
915 – 13 February 921 Duchy of Bohemia Drahomíra
three children
13 February 921
aged 32/3
Regencies of Ludmila of Bohemia (921) and Drahomíra (921–925) Known as St. Wenceslaus ("Good King Wenceslas" for English-speaking people), the patron saint of the Czech lands.
St.Wenceslaus
(Svatý Václav)
907[4][5][a]
Stochov[8]
First son of Vratislaus I and Drahomíra
13 February 921- 28 September 929/35 Duchy of Bohemia Unmarried 28 September 929/35
Stará Boleslav
aged 21/2 or 27/8
Boleslaus I the Cruel
(Boleslav I. Ukrutný)
915
Prague (?)
Second son of Vratislaus I and Drahomíra
28 September 929/35 – July 972 Duchy of Bohemia Biagota
four children
July 972
aged 56/7
Assassinated his brother to ascend to the ducal throne.
Boleslaus II the Pious
(Boleslav II. Pobožný)
940
Prague (?)
Son of Boleslaus I and Biagota
July 972 – 7 February 999 Duchy of Bohemia Adiva (of England?)
four children

Emma of Mělník
(Emma of Italy (?))
989
no children
7 February 999
aged 58/9
Moravia is again lost, this time, to Poland, in 999.
Boleslaus III the Red
(Boleslav III. Ryšavý)
965
First son of Boleslaus II and Adiva
7 February 999 – May 1002

February – March 1003
Duchy of Bohemia Unknown 1037
aged 56/7
In 1002-04, Bohemia was invaded twice by Poland.
Bohemia was annexed to Poland (1002-04):
Jaromír c. 970
Second son of Boleslaus II and Adiva
1004 – 12 April 1012

9 November 1034 – 1035
Duchy of Bohemia Unknown 4 November 1038
Lysá nad Labem
aged 60/70
In 1004, Jaromir occupied Prague with a German army and proclaimed himself Bohemian duke, restoring the family's domain, albeit reduced. As brothers of Boleslaus III, Jaromir and Ulrich had a fight for the throne that lasted until 1034, when Ulrich died and Jaromir retired (and then murdered). Nevertheless, more land was at stake, as Moravia was reintegrated into Bohemia in 1019, after being reconquered from Poland, and given to Ulrich's son.
Ulrich I
(Oldřich)
c. 975
Third son of Boleslaus II and Adiva
12 April 1012 – 9 November 1034 Duchy of Bohemia Božena
c. 1002
one child
9 November 1034 or 1042
aged 59/60 or 66/7
1033 – 9 November 1034 Duchy of Moravia
Bretislaus I the Bohemian Achilles
(Břetislav I. český Achilles)
1002/5
Son of Ulrich I and Božena
1019/29 – 1033

9 November 1034 – 10 January 1055
Duchy of Moravia Judith of Schweinfurt
1020
four children
10 January 1055
aged 50/3
First separation of Moravia from Bohemia. His father usurped his place for a year. After his own death, his sons shared the inheritance.
1035 – 10 January 1055 Duchy of Bohemia
Spytihněv II 1031
First son of Bretislaus I and Judith of Schweinfurt
10 January 1055 – 28 January 1061 Duchy of Bohemia
(also in Moravia from 1056)
Ida of Wettin
1054
one child
28 January 1061
aged 29/30
Children of Bretislav I, divided their inheritance:
  • Spytihnev kept Bohemia; the others divided Moravia:
    • Conrad received Brno;
    • Vratislav got Olomouc;
    • Otto inherited Znojmo.

The division was made ineffective by Spytihnev (1055), who extended his rule to Moravia, uniting the whole Premyslid domain under his control. However, after his death (1061), the landless brothers recovered the inheritance and divided it differently, as Vratislav inherited Bohemia:

  • Conrad recovered Brno but also received Otto's share in Znojmo;
  • Otto received Vratislav's part in Olomouc.
Vratislaus II
(Vratislav II)
c. 1035
Second son of Bretislaus I and Judith of Schweinfurt
10 January 1055 – 1056 Duchy of Olomouc Maria
before 1057
no children

Adelaide of Hungary (I)
1057
four children

Świętosława of Poland
1062
five children
14 January 1092
aged 59/60
28 January 1061 – June 1085
(as Duke)

June 1085 – 14 January 1092
(as King)
Duchy of Bohemia
Conrad I
(Konrád I)
c. 1035
Third son of Bretislaus I and Judith of Schweinfurt
10 January 1055 – 1056

28 January 1061 – 6 September 1092
Duchy of Brno
(with Znojmo since 1061)
Wirpirk of Tengling
1054
two children
6 September 1092
aged 56/57
14 January – 6 September 1092 Duchy of Bohemia
Otto I the Fair
(Ota Sličný)
1045
Fouth son of Bretislaus I and Judith of Schweinfurt
10 January 1055 – 1056 Duchy of Znojmo Euphemia of Hungary
before 1073
two children
9 June 1087
aged 41/2
28 January 1061 – 9 June 1087 Duchy of Olomouc
Boleslaus
(Boleslav)
1062
First son of Otto I and Euphemia of Hungary
9 June 1087 – 11 August 1091 Duchy of Olomouc Unmarried 11 August 1091
aged 28/9
Bretislaus II
(Břetislav II)
c. 1060
Son of Vratislaus II and Adelaide of Hungary (I)
6 September 1092 – 22 December 1100 Duchy of Bohemia Lukarta of Bogen
1094
one child
22 December 1100
aged 39/40
Ulrich (II)
(Oldřich)
c. 1070/80?
First son of Conrad I and Wirpirk of Tengling
6 September 1092 – 5 January 1113 Duchy of Brno
(with Znojmo since 1112)
Adelaide
two children
5 January 1113
aged c. 33/43?
Children of Conrad I, divided the inheritance:
  • Luitpold received Znojmo;
  • Ulrich inherited Brno.

Despite having heirs, Luitpold's land came to Ulrich's possession after his death. Conrad II, Luitpold's heir, would come to power in 1123.

Luitpold (I)
(Litold znojemský)
c. 1070/80?
Second son of Conrad I and Wirpirk of Tengling
6 September 1092 – 15 March 1112 Duchy of Znojmo Ida of Austria
one child
15 March 1112
aged c. 32/42?
Bořivoj II c. 1064
Prague
First son of Vratislaus II and Świętosława of Poland
25 December 1100 – May 1107

December 1117 – 16 August 1120
Duchy of Bohemia Helbirga of Austria
October 1100
Znojmo
no children
2 February 1124
aged 39/40
Ruled twice. Retired in 1120.
Svatopluk (I) the Lion
(Svatopluk Olomoucký)
1075
Second son of Otto I and Euphemia of Hungary
11 August 1091 – 21 September 1109 Duchy of Olomouc Unknown
one child
21 September 1109
aged 33/4
May 1107 – 21 September 1109 Duchy of Bohemia
Vladislaus I
(Vladislav I)
c. 1065
Second son of Vratislaus II and Świętosława of Poland
21 September 1109 – December 1117

16 August 1120 – 12 April 1125
Duchy of Bohemia Richeza of Berg
1110/11
four children
12 April 1125
Prague
aged 59/60
Ruled twice.
Sobeslaus I c. 1075
Third son of Vratislaus II and Świętosława of Poland
5 January 1113 – 1123 Duchy of Brno
(with Znojmo)
Adelaide of Hungary (II)
1123
five children
14 February 1140
aged 64/5
Ruled Brno and Znojmo,[9] which split after his resign:
  • Znojmo returned to its heir, Conrad II;
  • Brno was absorbed by Olomouc, the other Moravian feud.
12 April 1125 – 14 February 1140 Duchy of Bohemia
Otto II the Black
(Ota II. Černý)
1085
Third son of Otto I and Euphemia of Hungary
21 September 1109 – 18 February 1126 Duchy of Olomouc
(with Brno)
Sophia of Berg
1113
three children
18 February 1126
aged 40/1
Ruled in Olomouc, since 1091 with his brother Svatopluk. Acquired Brno in 1123.
Conrad II
(Konrád II)
c. 1100/10?
Son of Luitpold I and Ida of Austria
1123 – 1161 Duchy of Znojmo Maria of Serbia
1132
four children
1161
aged c. 50/51 or c. 60/61?
Received his heritage in 1123.[10]
Wenceslaus Henry
(Václav Jindřich)
1107
Son of Svatopluk (I)
18 February 1126 – 1 March 1130 Duchy of Olomouc Unmarried 1 March 1130
aged 22/3
Heirs of previous rulers of their portions, after Otto II's death inherited their respective inheritances.
Vratislaus (II)
(Vratislav)
c. 1100/11
Brno
Son of Ulrich (II) and Adelaide
18 February 1126 – 6 August 1156 Duchy of Brno A Russian princess
1132
three children
6 August 1156
Brno
aged 45/6
Luitpold (II)
(Lupolt Olomoucký)
1102
Son of Bořivoj II and Helbirga of Austria
1 March 1130 – 1137 Duchy of Olomouc Unmarried 1143
aged 40/1
Appointed and deposed by Sobeslaus, then the senior duke in Bohemia, who replaced him in Olomouc with his own son.
Vladislaus
(Vladislav)
c.1100?
First son of Sobeslaus I and Adelaide of Hungary (II)
1137 – 1140 Duchy of Olomouc Daughter of Albert the Bear
no children
1165
aged 64/5?
Probably resigned, waiting for succeed in Bohemia; however it was another Vladislaus who ended up ascending the seniority position in Bohemia.
Vladislaus II
(Vladislav II)
c. 1110
Son of Vladislaus I and Richeza of Berg
14 February 1140 – 11 January 1158
(as Duke)

11 January 1158 – 1172
(as King)
Duchy of Bohemia Gertrude of Austria
1140
six children

Judith of Thuringia
1155
three children
18 January 1174
Meerane
aged 63/4
Resigned in 1172.
Otto III
(Ota III)
1122
Son of Otto II and Sophia of Berg
1140 – 12 May 1160[11] Duchy of Olomouc Durancia
five children
12 May 1160
aged 37/8
Spytihněv (II) c.1130?
Son of Vratislaus (II)
6 August 1156 – 1182 Duchy of Brno Umarried 1199
aged 68/9?
In 1182, abdicated for Conrad Otto of Znojmo
Brno annexed to Znojmo
Frederick
(Bedřich)
1142
Son of Vladislaus II and Gertrude of Austria
12 May 1160 – 1173 Duchy of Olomouc Elizabeth of Hungary
1157
six children
25 March 1189
aged 46/7
1172 – 1173

1178 – 25 March 1189
Duchy of Bohemia
Ulrich (III) 1134
Second son of Sobeslaus I and Adelaide of Hungary (II)
1173 – 18 October 1177 Duchy of Olomouc Cecilia of Thuringia
no children

Sophia of Meissen
no children
18 October 1177
aged 42/3
Sobeslaus II the Prince of the Peasants
(Soběslav II. kníže sedláků)
1128
Third son of Sobeslaus I and Adelaide of Hungary (II)
1173 – 1178 Duchy of Bohemia Elisabeth of Greater Poland
no children
29 January 1180
aged 51/2
Wenceslaus II 1137
Fourth son of Sobeslaus I and Adelaide of Hungary (II)
18 October 1177 – 1178 Duchy of Olomouc Unmarried c.1192
aged 54/5
Abdicated for Conrad III.
9 September 1191 – 1192 Duchy of Bohemia
Olomouc annexed to Znojmo
Conrad III Otto
(Konrád III. Ota)
c. 1136
Son of Conrad II and Maria of Serbia
1161 – 1182 Duchy of Znojmo Hellicha of Wittelsbach
before 1176
no children
9 September 1191
aged 54/5
United Znojmo and Olomouc. Brno joined in 1182, when he also became the first Margrave of Moravia.
1182 – 9 September 1191 Margraviate of Moravia
1189 – 9 September 1191 Duchy of Bohemia
Bretislaus III Henry
(Břetislav III. Jindřich)
1137
Son of Henry and Margaret (?)
1193 – 15/19 June 1197 Duchy of Bohemia Unmarried 15/19 June 1197
aged 59/60
Son of Henry, brother of King Vladislaus II. Also Bishop of Prague (1182–97).
Vladislaus III Henry
(Vladislav III. Jindřich)
1137
Second son of Vladislaus II and Judith of Thuringia
22 June – 6 December 1197 Duchy of Bohemia Heilwida
no children
12 August 1222
Left no descendants. After his death, Moravia became an appanage of Bohemian princes.
December 1197 – 12 August 1222 Margraviate of Moravia
Premislaus Ottokar I
(Přemysl Otakar I)
1155
First son of Vladislaus II and Judith of Thuringia
1192 – 1193

6 December 1197 – 15 December 1230
Duchy of Bohemia
(until 1198)

Kingdom of Bohemia
(from 1198)
Adelaide of Meissen
1178
(annulled 1199)
one child

Constance of Hungary
1199
nine children
15 December 1230
Prague
aged 74/5
First king of hereditary royal title, confirmed by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor in 1212 by issuing the Golden Bull of Sicily.
Wenceslaus I the One-Eyed
(Václav I. Jednooký)
1205
Son of Premislaus Ottokar I and Constance of Hungary
15 December 1230 – 23 September 1253 Kingdom of Bohemia Kunigunde of Hohenstaufen
1224
five children
23 December 1253
Králův Dvůr
aged 47/8
Premislaus Ottokar II The Iron and Golden King
(Přemysl Otakar II. král železný a zlatý)
1233
Městec Králové
Son of Wenceslaus I and Kunigunde of Hohenstaufen
23 December 1253 – 26 August 1278 Kingdom of Bohemia Margaret of Austria
11 February 1252
Hainburg an der Donau
(annulled 1261)
no children

Kunigunda Rostislavna of Halych
25 October 1261
Pressburg
three children
26 August 1278
Dürnkrut
aged 44/5
Also Duke of Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Friuli and margrave of Carniola.
Regencies of Kunigunda Rostislavna of Halych (1278–1285) and Otto V, Margrave of Brandenburg (1278–1283) Also Duke of Cracow (from 1291) and King of Poland (1300–1305).
Wenceslaus II
(Václav II)
27 September 1271
PragueSon of Premislaus Ottokar II and Kunigunda Rostislavna of Halych
26 August 1278 – 21 June 1305 Kingdom of Bohemia Judith of Austria
January 1285
Cheb
ten children

Elizabeth Richeza of Poland
26 May 1303
Prague
one child
21 June 1305
Prague
aged 33
Wenceslaus III
(Václav III)
6 October 1289
Son of Wenceslaus II and Judith of Austria
21 June 1305 – 4 August 1306 Kingdom of Bohemia Viola of Cieszyn
5 October 1305
Brno
no children
4 August 1306
Olomouc
aged 16
Uncrowned (as Bohemian king). Also King of Hungary (1301–1305) and King of Poland.
Anna
(Anna Přemyslovna)
10 October 1290
Daughter of Wenceslaus II and Judith of Austria
4 August 1306 – 1306
3/4 July 1307 – 3 December 1310
Kingdom of Bohemia Henry
1306
no children
3 September 1313
Olomouc
aged 16
Heiresses of Bohemia, they were the true inheritors of the power claimed by their husbands during the succession crisis. Of the three, Rudolf had the weakest claim, and also the lowest popularity. The conflict was settled when, in 1310, Elizabeth and John invaded Prague, and defeated their opponents, Anna and Henry.
Henry of Carinthia[Note 1]
(Jindřich Korutanský)
1265
Son of Meinhard, Duke of Carinthia and Elisabeth of Bavaria
Anna
1306
no children

Adelaide of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1313
two children

Beatrice of Savoy
1327
no children
2 April 1335
Tirol
aged 69/70
Elisabeth Richeza of Poland
(Eliška-Rejčka)
1 September 1288
Poznań
Daughter of Przemysł II of Poland and Richeza of Sweden
1306 – 3/4 July 1307 Kingdom of Bohemia Wenceslaus II
26 May 1303
Prague
one child

Rudolf
16 October 1306
Prague
no children
19 October 1335
Brno
aged 47
Rudolf of Habsburg the Good
(Rudolf Habsburský, Rudolf Dobrý)
c. 1281
Vienna
Eldest son of Albert I of Germany and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
Blanche of France
25 May 1300
one child

Elisabeth Richeza
16 October 1306
Prague
no children
3/4 July 1307
Horažďovice
aged 26
Elisabeth
(Eliška Přemyslovna)
20 January 1292
Prague
Daughter of Wenceslaus II and Judith of Austria
3 December 1310 – 28 September 1330 Kingdom of Bohemia John
1 September 1310
Prague
seven children
28 September 1330
Prague
aged 38
John of Luxembourg the Blind
(Jan Lucemburský, Jan Slepý)
10 August 1296
Luxembourg
Son of Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor and Margaret of Brabant
3 December 1310 – 26 August 1346 Elisabeth
1 September 1310
Prague
seven children

Beatrice of Bourbon
December 1334
Vincennes
one child
26 August 1346
Crécy-en-Ponthieu
aged 50

The Late Kingdom of Bohemia: from the House of Luxembourg to Austria-Hungary (1310–1918)[edit]

Kings of Bohemia
House of Luxembourg
John the Blind
(Jan Lucemburský)
1310–1346 Son-in-law of Wenceslaus II.
Charles IV
(Karel I.)
1346–1378 Son of John. Also Holy Roman Emperor as Charles IV.
Wenceslaus IV
(Václav IV.)
1378–1419 Son of Charles I. Also King of the Romans until 1400.
Sigismund
(Zikmund)
1419–1437 Brother of Wenceslaus IV. Ruled effective 1436–1437 only (because of the Hussite Revolution). Also Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary.
House of Habsburg
Albert
(Albrecht Habsburský)
1437–1439 Son-in-law of Sigismund. Also King of the Romans and of Hungary.
Interregnum 1440–1453 The succession of Albert's son was not recognized by the Czech nobility for most of this era; the land was administered by the Landfrieden (provincial and territorial).
Ladislaus the Posthumous
(Ladislav Pohrobek)
1453–1457 Son of Albert born after his father's death. Also King of Hungary.
Non-Dynastic
George of Podebrady
(Jiří z Poděbrad)
1458–1471 Elected king from the Czech noble family House of Kunštát. Although he had descendants, the succession devolved to the prince from Polish kingdom.
Matthias I
(Matyáš I. Korvín)
1469–1490 King of Hungary, elected by the insurgent Catholic Czech aristocrats as anti-king in 1469, but never crowned. In 1479, he agreed to limit his rule to Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia, while retaining his title.
House of Jagiellon
Vladislaus II the Jagiellonian
(Vladislav II. Jagellonský)
1471–1516 Nephew of Ladislaus the Posthumous; elected on request of his predecessor George. Also King of Hungary after 1490.
Louis the Jagiellonian
(Ludvík Jagellonský)
1516–1526 Son of Vladislaus II. Also King of Hungary.
House of Habsburg
Ferdinand I 1526–1564 Brother-in-law of Louis; elected king. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor-elect from 1558.
Maximilian I
(Maxmilián I.)
1564–1576 Son of Ferdinand I, grandson of Vladislaus II. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
Rudolph II
(Rudolf II.)
1576–1612 Son of Maximilian I. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
Matthias II
(Matyáš II.)
1612–1615 Brother of Rudolph II. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
Ferdinand II 1615–1619,1620-1637 Cousin of Matthias. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
House of Wittelsbach
Frederick I
(Fridrich I.)
1619–1620 Elected by the Crown's Estates at the beginning of the Thirty Years' War, but after losing the Battle of White Mountain, he fled the country.
House of Habsburg
Ferdinand III 1637–1657 Son of Ferdinand II. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor. From this time on, Bohemia no longer had an elective monarchy, with the Habsburgs having imposed their exclusive rule at the Battle of the White Mountain.
Ferdinand IV 1646–1654 Son of Ferdinand III. Junior co-monarch during his father's reign. Also King of Hungary and King of the Romans.
Leopold I 1657–1705 Brother of Ferdinand IV. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
Joseph I
(Josef I.)
1705–1711 Son of Leopold I. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
Charles II
(Karel II.)
1711–1740 Brother of Joseph I. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor as Charles VI.
Maria Theresa
(Marie Terezie)
1740-1741,1743-1780 Daughter of Charles II. Also Queen of Hungary.
House of Wittelsbach
Charles Albert
(Karel Albrecht)
1741–1743 Son-in-law of Joseph I. Anti-king to Maria Theresa during the War of the Austrian Succession. Also Holy Roman Emperor as Charles VII.
House of Habsburg-Lorraine
Joseph II
(Josef II.)
1780–1790 Son of Maria Theresa. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
Leopold II 1790–1792 Brother of Joseph II. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
Francis I
(František I.)
1792–1835 Son of Leopold II. Also King of Hungary, Holy Roman Emperor to 1806, Emperor of Austria from 1804.
Ferdinand V 1835–1848 Son of Francis I. Also Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary. Last crowned King of Bohemia. Forced to abdicate during the Revolution of 1848.
Franz Joseph I
(František Josef I.)
1848–1916 Nephew of Ferdinand V. Also Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary.
Charles III
(Karel III.)
1916–1918 Grandnephew of Francis Joseph I. Also Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary. Ruled briefly during World War I; in November 1918 renounced participation in state affairs but did not abdicate.

Family tree[edit]

From Bořivoj I, its first Duke, to the end of the Habsburg domination.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Most frequently cited year of birth; other cited years are 908[6] or 911.[7]
  1. ^ VI as duke of Carinthia.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Between 1112 and 1123 Znojmo was part of Brno.
  2. ^ According to a bold hypothesis by historian Jaroslav Zástěra, the Premyslid dynasty was a possible direct descendant of the ruling family of Great Moravia, being Borivoj a son of Rastislav of Moravia. See Hypotheses and citations of articles by J. Zástěry on the website of the Club of Friends of the Znojmo Rotunda (in Czech)
  3. ^ "Saint Ludmila Slavic saint". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. September 11, 2018.
  4. ^ "Wenceslas I". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2022-05-11.
  5. ^ "Sep 28 – St Wenceslaus (907–929) martyr". CatholicIreland.net. 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2022-05-11.
  6. ^ "Svatý Václav se narodil u nás, tvrdí obyvatelé Stochova na Kladensku" (in Czech). iDnes. 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2022-05-11.
  7. ^ "The Premyslids". Genealogy.eu. Retrieved 2022-05-11.
  8. ^ According to legend. See page of the duke for details.
  9. ^ The intermission of other feudal lords of different branches could be seen as regencies, as it would happen, for example, in the 15-century Duchy of Austria, where Duke Frederick V exerted regency for his minor cousin, Ladislaus the Posthumous. However, these intermissions could be also similar, for example, to Kievan Rus', where rulers apparently "jumped" from place to place. Albeit this, nothing is proved.
  10. ^ The note referring to the regencies could apply here as well. The reason Conrad did not receive his duchy right after his father's death could be related to a possible minority that stopped him for assuming his power sooner.
  11. ^ The regency referred in previous notes may be proven here: in 1126, when his father died, he was too young to assume power. The rulers appointed by Sobeslaus I in the period 1126–40 could be functioning as regents.